Concept Mapping: Gendered Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence The Health Researcher’s Toolkit: Why Sex and Gender Matter

  • Introduction
    • The Health Researcher’s Toolkit: Why Sex & Gender Matter
    • Introduction
    • Module Objectives
    • Presenter Profile
  • Content
    • Sex & Gender
    • Module Introduction I
    • Module Introduction II
    • Key Terms & Concepts
    • Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part I: Lecture Video
    • Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part I: Concept Mapping Steps
    • Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part I: Structuring Step
    • Knowledge Check-in
    • Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part II: Lecture Video Content
    • Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part II: Participatory Research Method
    • Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part II: Concept Mapping Advantages
    • Module Summary I
    • Module Summary II
  • Conclusion
    • Module Quiz
    • Quiz Results
    • Reflection
    • Resources
    • About Women's Xchange
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The Health Researcher’s Toolkit: Why Sex & Gender Matter

Developed by the Women’s Xchange

Learning objectives

  • Define sex and gender and know how to correctly apply these terms
  • Explain why sex and gender matter in health research
  • Identify and apply methods for integrating sex and gender in different types of studies
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Introduction

Concept Mapping: Gendered Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence

A module of The Health Researcher’s Toolkit: Why Sex and Gender Matter

Presenter: Dr. Patricia O’Campo

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Module Objectives

In this module, you will learn

  • Why concept mapping is an effective tool for exploring gender differences on health issues
  • How concept mapping was used in this study of perceptions of intimate partner violence
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Presenter Profile

Dr. Patricia O’Campo
Chair, Intersectoral Solutions to Urban Health Problems
Research Scientist, Centre for Urban Health Solutions
Research Scientist,
Well Living House Indigenous Research Action Unit
Affiliate Scientist, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Professor, Dalla Lana School of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto

Download Dr. O’Campo’s biography

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Sex & Gender

Not interchangeable terms

Sex

  • Biological attributes
  • Associated with physical and physiological features
  • Often conceptualized as binary: female or male
    • However biological attributes and expression can vary as individuals may be born with reproductive anatomy that doesn’t fit the typical definition of female or male
  • Commonly understood as what was assigned at birth

Gender

  • Socially constructed and fluid
  • Culturally specific
  • Roles, behaviours, expressions, identities of girls, women, boys, men, gender diverse people
  • Gender identity
    • One’s innermost concept of self
    • May be same or differ from sex assigned at birth
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Module Introduction I

Concept mapping

  • Participatory research method
  • Gathers input from multiple participants about a topic
  • Produces an interpretable pictorial view / concept map
  • A structured process around a focus question
  • Quantitative and qualitative
  • Hypothesis generating
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Module Introduction II

Case study

  • How participants conceptualized and defined intimate partner violence in own words
  • Differences and similarities between men and women
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Key Terms & Concepts

Intimate partner violence (IPV): Controlling and abusive behaviour perpetuated by one person in an intimate relationship against the other person.

It occurs in heterosexual and same-sex relationships, married and common-law couples, and in dating and less formalized relationships.

While women can be abusive to their partners, women are more likely to be subjected to IPV, especially homicide, and men are more likely to be perpetrators.

(Statistics Canada, 2013)

Centrality: How critical a particular item is in terms of the focus question. Centrality is determined using statistical approaches.

Strata: A group into which participants of a study are categorized and separated with respect to a certain trait, e.g. age, education level or gender.

Group Segregation: The separation and grouping of participants by a certain common characteristic, usually a demographic trait like gender. In concept mapping, segregated groups generally work with their own data throughout the process. This strategy can be used to examine if there are any differences between groups.

Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part I: Lecture Video

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Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part I: Concept Mapping Steps

  1. Researchers prepare - focus question, participants, sessions
  2. As a group, participants generate ideas
  3. Individually, participants structure ideas - sort and rate
  4. Researchers compute maps - cluster analysis, multi-dimensional scaling
  5. As a group, participants interpret the maps
  6. Maps are used to generate hypotheses
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Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part I: Structuring Step

Structuring step

  • Sort concepts
  • Rate concepts on how critical/central to focus question
    • Results in qualitative data on centrality researchers can stratify by participant characteristics

In this study: stratified analysis showed little variation between men and women on central concepts

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Knowledge Check-in

Which of the following is/are steps in the creation of a concept map?

True or False: Concept maps only generate qualitative data

True or False: The qualitative analysis in this case study showed no gender difference on ideas perceived as key to a definition of intimate partner violence

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Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part II: Lecture Video Content

Later stages of concept mapping

  • Interpreting
  • Hypotheses

A tool for exploring gender differences

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Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part II: Participatory Research Method

A participatory research method

  • Taps into depth of thinking by participants
  • Participants interpret their own outcomes
  • More nuanced findings
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Dr. Patricia O’Campo Part II: Concept Mapping Advantages

  • Accessible
  • Rapid
  • Adaptable
  • Balance of
    • Individual and group contributions
    • Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis
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Module Summary I

  • Structured mixed methods process
  • Group and individual input
  • Participatory
    • Use own language
    • Interpret own outcomes
  • Greater depth of thinking by participants
  • Generates hypotheses
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Module Summary II

Accommodates questions about group differences: sex and/or gender differences

  • Recruitment efforts
  • Demographic survey
  • Stratified demographic data with clustering and rating of ideas
  • Segregate by gender for group portions
  • Gender-specific groups were facilitated by people of the same gender

Enabled the researchers to look at gendered perceptions both quantitatively and qualitatively

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Module Quiz

Test Your Understanding

  • Five questions
  • Select the best response
  • When you answer all, click submit

1. True or False: Clusters are a pictorial representation of concept items that participants often group together.

2. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

3. True or False: It is appropriate to ask participants to complete a demographic questionnaire prior to the concept mapping process.

4. Concept mapping offers a good balance between individual and group contributions. Which combination correctly represents the group contributions of the concept mapping process?: I.Brainstorming II.Rating items III.Sorting items IV.Mapping items

5. When using concept maps to explore gender-based difference, one should:

Quiz Results

You got out of questions correct.



1. True or False: Clusters are a pictorial representation of concept items that participants often group together.

True

False

2. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Concept maps are accessible, flexible and rapid for researchers

Concept maps can generate both qualitative and quantitative data

Concept maps are a pictorial representation of the researcher’s view on a particular topic or issue

D. All statements are true

3. True or False: It is appropriate to ask participants to complete a demographic questionnaire prior to the concept mapping process.

True

False

4. Concept mapping offers a good balance between individual and group contributions. Which combination correctly represents the group contributions of the concept mapping process?: I.Brainstorming II.Rating items III.Sorting items IV.Mapping items

I & IV

I, II & IV

II & III

I, II & III

5. When using concept maps to explore gender-based difference, one should:

Ask gender-segregated groups to work on their own data

Ask each gender-segregated group to discuss their own final map and provide feedback

Ask each gender-segregated group to create their own clusters of items

All of the above

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Reflection

In your field

  • Areas that would benefit from sex and/or gender exploration?
  • Challenges?

How can this research method be used to enhance patient engagement with a health issue?

Resources

Please See Additional Resources Below:

Pascale Beaupré, “Intimate Partner Violence”, Juristat Bulletin, Statistics Canada, 2014.

Burke, J. G., O’Campo, P., Peak, G. L., Gielen, A. C., McDonnell, K. A., & Trochim, W. M. (2005). An introduction to concept mapping as a participatory public health research method. Qualitative health research, 15(10), 1392-1410.

Trochim, W., & Kane, M. (2005). Concept mapping: an introduction to structured conceptualization in health care. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 17(3), 187-191.

About Women's Xchange

Based at Women’s College Hospital, Women’s Xchange is a women’s health knowledge translation and exchange centre, designed to promote women’s health research across the province. Funded by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care’s Health Service Research Fund (HSRF), the centre supports women’s health research in both academic and community settings. In addition to supporting research, Women’s Xchange also provides women’s health researchers and trainees across the province with opportunities to gain new skills and develop new collaborations.

The Health Researcher’s Toolkit: Why Sex and Gender Matter

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